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About Duplex
Definition Of Duplex Steels

Duplex 2205 Seamless Tubing Duplex Stainless Steels Are Extremely Corrosion Resistant, Work Hardenable Alloys. Their Microstructures Consist Of A Mixture Of Austenite And Ferrite Phases. As A Result, Duplex Stainless Steels Display Properties Characteristic Of Both Austenitic And Ferritic Stainless Steels. This Combination Of Properties Can Mean Some Compromise When Compared With Pure Austenitic And Pure Ferritic Grades.

Duplex Stainless Steels Are In Most Cases, Tougher Than Ferritic Stainless Steels. Strengths Of Duplex Stainless Steels Can In Some Cases Be Double That For Austenitic Stainless Steels.
Whilst Duplex Stainless Steels Are Considered Resistant To Stress Corrosion Cracking, They Are Not As Resistant To This Form Of Attack As Ferritic Stainless Steels. However, The Corrosion Resistance Of The Least Resistant Duplex Stainless Steels Is Greater Than That For The Most Commonly Used Grades Of Stainless Steels, I.E. 304 And 316.

Duplex Steels Are Also Magnetic, A Property That Can Be Used To Easily Differentiate Them From Common Austenitic Grades Of Stainless.

Property Data Given In This Document Is Typical For Flat Rolled Products Covered By Astm A240/A240m. Astm, En Or Other Standards May Cover Products Sold. It Is Reasonable To Expect Specifications In These Standards To Be Similar But Not Necessarily Identical To Those Given In This Datasheet.

Duplex stainless steel

Toughness And Ductility

Duplex And Super-Duplex Stainless Steels Have Significantly Better Toughness And Ductility Than Ferritic Grades. However, They Do Not Reach The Excellent Values Of Austenitic Grades.

    Corrosion Resistance :

    When Adequately Heat Treated, The Materials, Depending On Their Composition, Are Corrosion Resistant. For Chloride Pitting And Crevice Corrosion Resistance, The Chromium-, Molybdenum- And Nitrogen Contents Are Very Important. Duplex Stainless And Super-Duplex Steel Grades Have A Range Of Corrosion Resistance, Similar To The Range For Conventional Austenitic Stainless Steels (E.G.V304 Or V316 To Vrc 254).

    Heat Resistance :

    The High Chromium Content Of Duplex Stainless Steels That Protects Against Corrosion, Causes Embrittlement At Temperatures Over About 300°C.
    At Low Temperatures Duplex Stainless Steels Have Better Ductility Than The Ferritic And Martensitic Grades. Duplex Grades Can Readily  Be Used Down To At Least -50°C.

    Heat Treatment :

    Duplex Stainless Steels Cannot Be Hardened By Heat Treatment. They Can However Be Work Hardened. Solution Treatment Or Annealing Can Be Done By Rapid Cooling After Heating To Around 1100°C.

      Applications :

    • Oil And Gas Exploration And Offshore Rigs
    • Oil And Gas Refining & Industry Equipment
    • Marine Environments, Desalination Plants, High Pressure Ro-Plant And Seawater Piping
    • Pollution Control Equipment
    • Pulp & Paper Manufacturing
    • Chemical Process Industries, Heat Exchangers, Vessels, And Piping
    • Power Industry Fgd Systems, Utility And Industrial Scrubber Systems, Absorber Towers, & Ducting
    • Mechanical And Structural Components, High Strength, Corrosion-Resistant Parts
    • Offshore Platforms, Heat Exchangers, Process And Service Water Systems, Fire-Fighting Systems, Injection And Ballast Water Systems
    • Exhaust Systems, Car Trim/Grilles, Road Tankers, Ship Containers, Ships Chemical Tankers, Refuse Vehicles
    • Chemical Processing, Transport And Storage
    • Springs, Fasteners (Bolts, Nuts And Washers), Wire.

     


    Duplex Characteristics & Benefits

    Characteristic
    Benefit
    High Inherent Corrosion ResistanceNo Need To Protect By Surface Coating
    Outstanding Pitting/Crevice ResistanceIdeal For Oil & Gas, Marine & Defence Applications
    Excellent Corrosion Resistance In AcidsIdeal For Chemical Industry
    High Resistance To Stress Corrosion CrackingSuitable For Highly Loaded Components In Chloride Environments
    High Resistance To Chloramines At High Temperature / HumiditySuitable For Use In Safety Critical Supports In Swimming Pools
    High Mechanical StrengthScope For Smaller Diameter And Hardware
    Good Fatigue StrengthApplicable For Cyclically Loaded Assemblies
    High Modulus Of ElasticityLow Propensity To Stretch


    * Available Specifications Of Duplex And Super Duplex Stainless Steel
    Euro Specification
    U.S Specification
    Composition
    Benefit
    En Astm 1.4501 A135 F55Uns S32760Super Duplex Stainless Steel. 25% Chromium Super Duplex (Austenitic/Ferritic) Steel With 0.75% Tungsten And CopperGood Strength/Ductility Combined With High Corrosion Resistance
    En Astm 1.4462 A135 F51Uns S31803Duplex Stainless Steel. 22% Chromium Duplex (Austenitic/ Ferritic) Steel (2205 Type)Moderate/Good Strength And Good General Corrosion/ Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance
    En Astm 1.4410 A135 F53Uns S32750Super Duplex Stainless Steel. 25% Chromium Copper-Free Super Duplex (Austenitic/Ferritic) Steel (Also Known As 2507)Good Strength And Ductility Combined With High Marine Corrosion Resistance
    En Astm 1.4507 A135 F61Uns S32550 Ferrinox® 255Super Duplex Stainless Steel. High Performance 25% Chromium Super Duplex (Austenitic/Ferritic) Steel With 1.75% CopperGood Strength/Ductility Combined With High Resistance To All Forms Of Corrosion


    Fabrication

    Fabrication Of All Stainless Steels Should Be Done Only With Tools Dedicated To Stainless Steel Materials. Tooling And Work Surfaces Must Be Thoroughly Cleaned Before Use. These Precautions Are Necessary To Avoid Cross Contamination Of Stainless Steel By Easily Corroded Metals That May Discolour The Surface Of The Fabricated Product.



    Machinability

    Although Machinable, The High Strengths Of Duplex Stainless Steels Makes Machining Difficult. As An Example, Machining Of 2205 Is Around 20% Slower Than For 304.

    Machining Can Be Enhanced By Using The Following Rules :
    ~ Cutting Edges Must Be Kept Sharp. Dull Edges Cause Excess Work Hardening.
    ~ Cuts Should Be Light But Deep Enough To Prevent Work Hardening By Riding On The Surface Of The Material.
    ~ Chip Breakers Should Be Employed To Assist In Ensuring Swarf Remains Clear Of The Work
    ~ Low Thermal Conductivity Of Austenitic Alloys Results In Heat Concentrating At The Cutting Edges. This Means Coolants And Lubricants Are Necessary And Must Be Used In Large Quantities.



    Weldability

    Duplex Stainless Steels Have Good Weldability. All Standard Welding Processes Can Be Used. They Are Not Quite As Easily Welded As The Austenitic Grades But Low Thermal Expansion In Duplex Grades Reduces Distortion And Residual Stresses After Welding. The Recommended Filler Material For 2205 Stainless Steel Is 2209

    Cost:

    Duplex Stainless Steels Have Lower Nickel And Molybdenum Contents Than Their Austenitic Counterparts Of Similar Corrosion Resistance.  Due To The Lower Alloying Content, Duplex Stainless Steels Can Be Lower In Cost, Especially In Times Of High Alloy Surcharges.  Additionally, It May Often Be Possible To Reduce The Section Thickness Of Duplex Stainless Steel, Due To Its Increased Yield Strength Compared To Austenitic Stainless Steel.  The Combination Can Lead To Significant Cost And Weight Savings Compared To A Solution In Austenitic Stainless Steels.

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